How Do I Know If I Have Postpartum Depression?: Black Perinatal Mental Health
Updated: Nov 13, 2022
Do you know your birth story? I know mine because when I was very young, I used to ask my mom to tell me about the night that I was born. I asked her to tell me this story over and over and over again, especially for bedtime. She told me this story so many times that whenever she would try to leave something out to make it shorter, I could and would verbally fill in the gaps. I loved learning about who my mom was and what commotion I caused on my way into the world.
Ignored in the Birth Canal
Here's the short version and a tiny bit of backstory. I am the youngest of three children born to my mom. So, this wasn't her first rodeo at labor and delivery. She went into labor in the wee hours of the morning while it was still dark outside, think around 2 or 3 am, during a very snowy night. She makes it to the hospital and they don't really listen to her. They ignore her when she tells them that something is wrong. She tells them that I'm coming too early because her obstetrician said that I would be due around the first week of April; the snowy night was in February.
They eventually admit her and then just kind of leave her in the hospital room all alone. A nurse comes in to "check on her," but only really glances at monitors. She doesn't physically check my mom or her cervix. Meanwhile, my mom keeps telling the nurse that I'm coming and that the labor is happening fast. Just so you know, my mom's second child was born prematurely and spent a long time in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). That was obviously very scary for my mom, and she was trying to avoid that from happening again. No one listened to her.
As my mom used to tell it, she was yelling for the nurse and physician because she could feel my head. As my mom laid in her hospital bed, attempting to sit up and fully preparing to catch me, it seems that in the nick of time that nurse came in, saw my head almost all the way out, and she went into emergency mode calling for help. My mom was right.
Generational Trauma: Why Didn't Anyone Listen?
As a child, I tried to picture it all. I did that so many times that I still feel like I can see it. Trying to picture tiny me almost hitting floor, head first, as the doctor barely catches me like a football. That's how it plays in my mind. It's sad. Why didn't they just listen to my mom from the beginning? Well, now I know why. She's Black. It's that simple.
It wasn't until I became an adult and started learning about racial bias, trauma, and birth health inequities, that I realized not only did my mom experience racist healthcare, but my life started with a near death experience due to race. Talk about generational trauma!
Sadly, these racist practices and system-wide policies still exist decades later. By now, you know the statistic about Black maternity deaths and Black infant mortality rates. What may be more of a surprise is the high number of Black parents who experience perinatal mental health complications and go without treatment because healthcare systems continue to misdiagnose, over-diagnose, and under-diagnose Black people for psychological concerns.
What Are The Symptoms?
Knowing that these issues persist is not enough to make them stop. While many people work to change the system, Black people are experiencing birth attempts everyday with parents and babies are suffering in the meantime. Therefore, it is important that you are equipped with some knowledge regarding advocacy and emotional regulation.
Dr. Google is not your friend in this situation. If you are experiencing concerns regarding mental health during the perinatal period (before conception, during pregnancy, or up to two years after your child comes home), it will be helpful to have a direct place to look and someone to contact.
Below are a list of common perinatal mental health complications and some of their symptoms. If you are feeling any of these things for longer than three weeks, please reach out to a licensed mental health provider who has experience with perinatal mental health. If you have a good relationship with your OB/GYN, they can often serve as a first line of defense for referrals and perhaps may prescribe medication, if you want to explore that option. Remember, all of these complications are treatable and in no way your fault.
Perinatal Anxiety (prenatal & postpartum anxiety) - between 6 and 10% of people in the perinatal period experience this, and it can occur alone or with perinatal depression. This category can also include perinatal panic disorders that cause panic attacks.
Feeling that something bad will happen (may have vivid thoughts about the potential bad thing happening)
Difficulties with sleep and appetite (sleeping too litte and changes in eating habits)
Inability to sit still
Physical symptoms like dizziness, hot flashes, and nausea
Perinatal Depression (prenatal & postpartum depression) - this is the most common birth complication and can be found in adoptive parents and parents of all genders. Teens are at a high risk for postpartum depression.
Appetite and sleep disruptions
Crying and sadness
Easily angered or increased irritability
Little interest in the baby or feel "disconnect" from the child
Feelings of guilt, shame or hopelessness
Loss of interest, joy or pleasure in things you used to enjoy
Possible thoughts of harming the baby or yourself
Perinatal Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Obsessions, also called intrusive thoughts, that won't go away, are repetitive or mental images related to the baby. These thoughts are very upsetting and not something the parent has ever experienced before (unless they had perinatal OCD with another child)
Compulsions, where the parent may do certain things repetitively in attempts to control fears and obsessions. This can look like cleaning constantly, checking safety things repeatedly, reordering and counting things at a high rate.
Kind of feel scared about the obsessions
Intense fear of being left alone with the child
Hypervigilance in protecting the baby<